All and any Services provided to you by Reliance Properties Limited (“Reliance Properties”, “we” or “us”) will be subject to the terms and conditions set out in this Agreement. Please ensure that you read this Agreement carefully before using any Services. If you do wish to question anything in this Agreement, please contact us at

Agency Agreement

This Agreement is made between the Landlord of the Property (as named at the end of this Agreement) and Reliance Properties who agree to act as agent for the Landlord and are hereinafter referred to as “the Agent”.  The purpose of this document is to set out clearly and concisely the extent of the letting and management service offered and the scale of fees charged.

The terms of the Agreement set out in this document will constitute a binding legal contract.  If you are unsure of your obligations under this Agreement, then you are advised to take independent legal advice before signing. This Agreement is set out to comply with the requirements of the Provision of Services Regulations 2009 SI 2999.


Reliance Properties provides a property management service to owners wishing to let out their property.  The standard fee for the management is taken as a percentage of the gross rents due for the period of the tenancy and a set-up fee will normally be levied at the outset for taking references and arranging the tenancy.

The Standard Management Service includes:

  1. Advising as to the likely rental income.
  2. Advertising and generally marketing the Property.
  3. Interviewing prospective tenants and taking up full references including bank reference, and employer or previous landlord character reference. Where necessary, additional security would be requested by means of a guarantor. In the case of a company, a full bank reference would be taken.
  4. Preparing the tenancy agreement necessary for the Landlord to gain protection of the relevant Rent and Housing Acts.
  5. Taking a deposit from the Tenant, dealing with this deposit under the requirements of the chosen deposit protection scheme until the end of the tenancy when the Property and contents have been checked for unfair wear and tear and handling any termination issues with the Tenant and the tenancy deposit scheme provider.
  6. Collecting the Rent monthly and paying over to the Landlord monthly (normally sent within 5 days of collection) less any fees or expenses due or incurred for the period. Payments will be made by direct bank transfer and a detailed rent statement will be forwarded to the Landlord.
  7. Arranging with service companies (principally electricity gas & water) for meter readings and advising them of the transfer of service contracts to the Tenant at the beginning of each tenancy.
  8. Regular inspections of the Property are carried out on a quarterly basis. Responsibility for and management of empty property is not normally included, and will only be carried out by special arrangement agreed in writing between the Landlord and the Agent.
  9. Co-ordination of repair or maintenance including arranging for tradesmen to attend the Property and obtaining estimates where necessary, supervising works and settling accounts from rents received.
  10. Making payments on behalf of the Landlord from rents received for costs in managing the Property.
  11. Carrying out a full property inspection and inventory check at the end of the tenancy and, if necessary, preparing and agreeing a schedule of costs relating to any damage or unfair wear and tear prior to releasing the Deposit.
  12. Collecting and forwarding Landlord’s mail.

Additional items and other expenses will be charged according to the scale of fees defined below.


Standard Management Fee (Items 1 to 13 above): 7% of rent due (subject to a Minimum Fee of £35.00 per calendar month

Letting Only Service Fee: (Items 1 to 4 above): 50% of first month rent (subject to a Minimum Fee of £250.00)

Letting Only Plus Deposit Protection (Items 1 to 5 above): 50% of first month rent plus Tenancy Deposit Service Fee be.

Additional Charges:

Immigration Checking Fee: £50

Tenancy Set-Up Fee*: £ 99

Tenancy Renewal Fee: £99

Preparing Inventory/Schedule of Condition: £50

Administration of NRL tax returns: £250 per annum

Redirection of mail overseas: Cost Of Postage

Arranging gas safety check: £ 50 plus costs

Tenancy Deposit Service Fee*: £25 plus scheme costs

Duplication and testing of extra keys: £10 plus costs

Issuing Notice of Seeking Possession: £100

Maintenance Repair Limit UK Landlords (see clause 4.1): £250

Maintenance Repair Limit Overseas Landlords (see clause 4.1): £500

Obtaining estimates and supervision of major works: 11% of cost of work.

*These fees are included in the Standard Management Fee.



The Landlord confirms that he/she is the sole or joint owner of the Property and has the right to rent out the Property under the terms of the mortgage or head lease.  Where necessary, the Landlord confirms that permission to let has been granted by the mortgagee and the freeholder or head leaseholder.  The Landlord authorises the Agent to carry out the various usual duties of property management including those listed in items 1-13 of the Standard Management Service – detailed previously.  The Landlord also agrees that the Agent may take and hold deposits and comply with the requirements of any tenancy deposit scheme that may apply to that deposit.  It is declared that the Agent may earn and retain commissions on insurance policies issued.   The Agent declares that fees may be charged to either the Landlord or the Tenant for ancillary services (e.g. duplication of keys) and that such fees will include a profit element to cover the Agent’s administrative and business costs.


2.1 Although our aim is to take care in managing the Property according to the terms of our client’s instructions, the Agent has the right to be reimbursed for all expenses and indemnified against all costs, claims and liabilities incurred by the Agent while acting within the scope of this authority.

2.2 The Agent cannot accept responsibility for non-payment of rent, damage, or other default by tenants, or any associated legal costs incurred in their collection where the Agent has acted correctly in terms of this Agreement, or on the Landlord’s instructions.   An insurance policy is recommended for this eventuality.


3.1 The Landlord agrees to repay the Agent for any reasonable costs, expenses or liabilities incurred or imposed on the Agent provided that they were incurred on behalf of the Landlord in pursuit of the Agent’s normal duties.  To assist the Agent in carrying out his duties effectively, the Landlord agrees to respond promptly with instructions where necessary to any correspondence or requests from the Agent.

3.2 Where the agreement is cancelled under the Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 (or previous consumer contract legislation) the Landlord agrees to repay any reasonable costs incurred by the Agent in carrying out his duties before the cancellation of the contract (see clause 15.3).


4.1 The Landlord agrees to provide the Property in good and lettable condition and that the Property, beds, sofas and all other soft furnishings conform to the current fire safety regulations.   The Landlord agrees to make the Agent aware of any ongoing maintenance problems.  Subject to a retained maximum expenditure limit (Maintenance Repair Limit) on any single item or repair, and any other requirements or limits specified by the Landlord, the Agent will administer any miscellaneous maintenance work that needs to be carried out on the Property (although the administration of major works or refurbishment will incur an additional charge – see Scale of Fees above).  ‘Retained maximum expenditure limit’ means that the Agent has authority to spend up to this amount (or other amount as individually agreed) on reasonable improvements or repairs in any single monthly accounting period without prior reference to the Landlord.

4.2 For expenditure in excess of the agreed expenditure limits, the Agent would normally request authorisation in advance, although it is agreed that in an emergency or for reasons of contractual or legal necessity where reasonable endeavours have been made to contact the Landlord, the Agent may reasonably exceed the limits specified.  By law, it is necessary to carry out an annual gas safety check on any gas appliances and flues to ensure that all gas appliances, flues and associated pipe work are maintained in a safe condition. The Agent will carry this out on the Landlord’s behalf and expense and administer the necessary inspection and maintenance records. The reasonable costs involved will be debited to the Landlord’s account.

4.3 Where the Agent is required to co-ordinate repair and maintenance work on behalf of the Landlord, the Agent will not be responsible for any negligence, damage, or breach of contact by any contractor employed in this way.


When letting property and collecting rents for non-UK resident landlords (NRL) i.e. landlords living overseas, the Agent is obliged by the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988 and the Taxation of Income from Land (Non-Residents) Regulations 1995 to deduct tax (at the basic tax rate) to cover any tax liability, unless the Landlord has been authorised in writing by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) to receive rent gross.  In this situation, the Agent also requests that the Landlord appoints an accountant or reserves to the Agent the right to employ a suitably qualified accountant in order to manage correspondence with the Inland Revenue.  A standard annual charge will be made for this work and the Agent may charge reasonable administration expenses for further work requested by the Landlord, the Landlord’s accountant or the HMRC in connection with such tax liabilities.  In many cases, a landlord’s tax liability is minimal when all allowable costs are deducted.


Payment of Council tax will normally be the responsibility of the Tenants in the Property.  However, landlords should be aware that where a property is empty, let as holiday accommodation, or let as a house in multiple occupation (HMO) responsibility for payment of council tax then rests with the owner of the Property.


The Agent will take meter readings whenever possible at each change of occupation in the Property and, where necessary, inform the service companies (electricity, gas and water) of these readings and change of occupation.  In many cases, the service companies (e.g. BT) require that the new occupiers formally request and authorise the service and it is not possible for the Agent to do this on the Tenant’s or Landlord’s behalf.   Regarding mail, Landlords should take care to inform all parties (e.g. Banks, clubs, societies etc.) of their new address; it is not always possible to rely on tenants to forward mail.


The deposit protection schemes established under the terms of the Housing Act 2004 require that all landlords need to be protected by good inventory and condition reports from the outset.  The Agent will prepare an inventory for the Property and a charge will be made for this depending on the size of the inventory and the Property. The standard inventory will include all removable items in the Property (except those of negligible value) plus carpets, paintwork, wall coverings, curtains, mirrors, sanitary ware and other articles that, in the opinion of the Agent, need regular checking.  Landlords should not leave any articles of exceptional value in the Property without prior arrangement with the Agent.  The standard inventory service will include a full schedule of condition (condition, colour & decoration of ceilings, walls, doors & door fittings etc.).  Evidence of condition or damage (i.e. photography) will be prepared as required, or at the Landlord’s request, and will be charged accordingly.


The Standard Management Service includes the preparation of a tenancy agreement in the Agent’s standard form(s) and provision of a copy of this agreement to a designated advisor or building society.  Should the Landlord, advisors or mortgagees require amendment of the contract or require the Agent enter into further work or correspondence, a fee for this extra work may be requested (or you may have the tenancy agreement amended by your own adviser at your own expense).  It is agreed that the Agent may sign the tenancy agreement(s) on behalf of the Landlord.


The Agent will, as necessary, serve the usual legal notices on the Tenant(s) in order to terminate the tenancy, increase the Rent, or for any other purpose that supports the good management of the Property, or the timely return of the Deposit at the end of the tenancy.


A reservation fee is generally taken from a tenant applying to rent a property.   The purpose of this fee is to verify the Tenant’s serious intent to proceed, and to protect the Agent against any administrative expenses (taking out bank references, conducting viewings, re-advertising) that may be incurred should the Tenant decide to withdraw the application.  The reservation fee does not protect the Landlord against loss of rent due to the Tenant deciding to withdraw, or references proving unsuitable although early acceptance of rent from the applicant would not be advisable until satisfactory references have been received.  Landlords should notify the Agent where they wish a larger security fee to be carried to protect against loss of rents, or insurance undertaken. This fee is not a deposit until it is transferred on the establishment of the tenancy.


12.1 Deposits Upon signing the tenancy agreement, the Agent will take a dilapidations Deposit from the Tenant(s) in addition to any rents due.  The purpose of the dilapidations Deposit is to protect the Landlord against loss of rent or damage to the Property during the tenancy itself.  This Deposit will be kept in a separate and secure client account ready for refunding (less any charges due) at the end of the tenancy, or forwarded  to one of the Government-regulated deposit schemes listed below.

12.2 Statutory Tenancy Deposit Protection.  Where the tenancy is an assured shorthold tenancy, the Landlord or Agent is legally required to ensure that any tenancy deposit taken under the tenancy is protected within one of three statutory tenancy deposit schemes within 30 days of receipt.  The schemes are:

  • The Deposit Protection Service (DPS)
  • My Deposits
  • Tenancy Deposit Scheme (TDS)

12.3 Tenancy Deposit Information.   Where statutory tenancy deposit protection applies to a tenancy deposit,  the Agent will provide to the Tenant within 30 days the following information required from the Landlord by the Housing Act 2004:-

  • information on the particular scheme under which the tenancy deposit is protected;
  • compliance by the Landlord with his obligations under the Act and
  • prescribed information for the Tenant.

More information on the requirements of the deposit protection schemes are available on the following web site(s) and landlords are strongly urged to familiarize themselves with their legal responsibilities:


13.1 Under the Standard Management Service, the Agent will normally carry out inspections quarterly starting after the first month.   Such inspections do not constitute a formal survey of the Property, and it is not the intention to check every item of the inventory at this stage.  The inspection is concerned with verifying the good order of the tenancy  (i.e. house being used in a ‘tenant-like’ manner) and the general condition of the Property.  This would normally include inspecting the main items (carpets, walls, cooker, main living areas and gardens.)  Where these were felt to be unsatisfactory, a more detailed inspection would generally be made.

13.2 Following the departure of tenants, a final inspection of the Property is carried out by the Agent. Testing of all the electrical appliances, heating system and plumbing is not feasible during this inspection; a qualified contractor should be appointed for this purpose should it be required by the Landlord.   Any deficiencies or dilapidations would normally be submitted to the Landlord (and, if appropriate, to the relevant tenancy deposit scheme administrator) together with any recommended deductions or replacement values.


14.1 The Agent will attempt, by negotiation, to resolve any deposit disputes between the Landlord and the Tenant.  Where the Deposit is subject to statutory tenancy deposit protection, and a dispute cannot be resolved between the parties, then it will be necessary to submit the claim to the tenancy deposit administrators for adjudication under an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process or to take Small Claims action in the County Court.  An estimate of the likely costs of preparing and submitting the claim to adjudication or for Small Claims will be submitted to the Landlord before any case is started.

14.2 The Landlord authorises the Agent to make appropriate deductions from the rental income in the last two months of the tenancy to provide a maintenance fund from which any cleaning, repair or other costs can be disbursed at the end of the tenancy.


15.1 Termination of Agency Agreement.  This Agreement may be terminated by either party by way of two months’ written notice.  The Minimum Fee applies if on termination the total fees due are less than the Minimum Fee.

15.2 Tenancy Agreement.  The Landlord shall provide the Agent with any requirements for return and repossession of the Property at the earliest opportunity.  Landlords should be aware that any tenancy agreement entered into on the Landlord’s behalf is a binding legal agreement for the term agreed.  Details of any tenancy agreement being entered into will be communicated to the Landlord as soon as possible.   Landlords should be aware that the legal minimum notice period to tenants under assured tenancies is generally two months (should the contract allow for early termination) and this needs to be given even in the case of a fixed term tenancy which is due to expire.

15.3 Agreements signed away from the Agents office.  Where this Agency Agreement is signed away from the office the Landlord has a right to cancel under consumer protection legislation within 14 days (‘a cooling off period’) of the date of this Agreement.  A cancellation notice is available at the end of this Agreement.  Where the Landlord waives his right to cancellation (see paragraph 28) by agreeing to the Agent carrying out works immediately following the date of this Agreement he will be responsible for any reasonable costs incurred by the Agent in carrying out their duties if the Landlord cancels this contract during the ‘cooling off’ period.


It is agreed that only the Agent may let the Property.


WARNING: You should read and understand these obligations before signing overleaf.

17.1 The letting of property is now closely regulated with respect to consumer safety.  The law makes particular demands regarding the safety, servicing and inspection of the gas and electric appliances and installations within a property, and with respect to the safety of furniture and soft furnishings provided.  The following regulations (as amended) apply:

  • Furniture and Furnishings (Fire)(Safety) Regulations 1988
  • General Product Safety Regulations 2005
  • Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998
  • Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994 & 2016
  • Plugs and Sockets (Safety) Regulations 1994

17.2 The Landlord confirms that they are aware of these obligations and that the Agent has provided sufficient information to assist with compliance.  It is agreed that the Landlord shall ensure that the Property is made available for letting in a safe condition and in compliance with the above regulations.  Under the Standard Management Service, the Agent shall ensure that all relevant equipment is checked at the beginning of the tenancy and maintained during the tenancy as required, and that appropriate records are kept.  The Landlord agrees to repay the Agent’s reasonable costs incurred including any reasonable expenses or penalties that may be suffered as a result of non-compliance of the Property to fire and safety appliance standards.

17.3 Where the Landlord has duties in regard to the prevention of legionella and the inspection of domestic-type water systems, it is agreed that the Landlord shall be responsible for the maintenance of the water system and any associated safety checks under these duties.


It is agreed that any instructions to the Agent from the Landlord regarding termination, proceedings, major repairs, payment, or other significant details regarding the letting be confirmed to the Agent in writing.


All fees stated are exclusive of VAT and will be deducted from the client’s account as they fall due.  Management fees and similar services are based on a percentage of the actual rental fee.  For example, a property rented at £1,000 per calendar month will incur a monthly management fee of £70 where the fee is 7%.  Should the agreed rental be higher or lower then the fee will be correspondingly higher or lower.


The Landlord shall be responsible for the Property being adequately insured and that the insurance policy covers the situation where the Property is let.    The Agent would normally be responsible for the administration of any claims arising during the period of management where the Property is being managed (i.e. this only applies to properties under the full “Standard Management Service”) and subject to an additional charge for major works (see “Maintenance”).


The Landlord undertakes to re-imburse the Agent for any claims arising from overpayment which may be made by the local authority in respect of housing benefit, or other benefit scheme, paid to or on behalf of the Tenant(s) as rent.  This undertaking shall remain in force during the currency of the tenancy and up six years thereafter, whether or not the Agent continues to be engaged to let or manage the Property under this Agreement.


Any delays of payment or other defaults will be acted on by the Agent in the first instance.  Where the Agent has been unsuccessful in these initial actions, or there are significant rent arrears or breaches of the tenancy agreement, the Landlord will be advised accordingly.  A solicitor may then be appointed and instructed by the Landlord  (except where the Agent is unable, after taking reasonable efforts, to contact the Landlord.  In that event the Agent is authorised to instruct a solicitor on the Landlord’s behalf).  The Landlord is responsible for payment of all legal fees and any related costs.


Where the Landlord does not wish the Agent to undertake full management (the Standard Management Service), the Agent can provide a Letting Only Service.  The Letting Only Service includes only items 1 to 5 of the Standard Management Service as listed above.  The Landlord would remain responsible for all other aspects of the letting including the maintenance of the Property and any gas and electrical appliances.  The Landlord would remain responsible for complying with the Deposit protection requirements of the Housing Act 2004 and must provide the Agent with written confirmation of this together with a receipt for the Deposit monies received by the Agent on his behalf.  The Letting Only Service Fee is payable at the commencement of the tenancy and will be deducted from monies received by the Agent on the Landlord’s behalf.   If the Tenant leaves prior to the end of the term of the tenancy, through no fault of the Agent, the Landlord shall not be entitled to reimbursement of any fees paid.


Where the Landlord requires the Agent to deal with his legal responsibilities for the protection of tenancy deposits under the Housing Act 2004 (item 6 of the Standard Management Service) then the Tenancy Deposit Service Fee will be charged in addition to the Letting Only Service Fee.


Where the Landlord requires the collection of rents and the deposit service (items 6 & 7 only of the Standard Management Service as listed above) in addition to the Letting Only Service, then the Letting and Rent Collection Fee will be charged and will be deducted from rents collected.


Where, with the consent of the Landlord, the tenancy as set out in clauses 23-25 is renewed or extended to the same tenant (or any person associated with the Tenant) originally introduced by the Agent, the Tenancy Renewal Fee shall be payable on the renewal date. The Agent shall prepare the tenancy agreement, if required, for the new or extended tenancy and the terms of this Agreement shall continue until the Tenant leaves, or this Agreement is terminated.


It is agreed that the Agent will carry out any checks required under the Immigration Act and the Agent will be responsible for taking the steps necessary to establish an excuse against a penalty.  The Landlord agrees to pay the Immigration Checking Fee for carrying out the necessary checks as set out in the Scale of Fees above.  The Agent’s responsibilities for such checks will only extend to the duration of this Agreement and at the termination of this Agreement the Agent will transfer the status evidence to the Landlord and the responsibility for maintaining immigration status checks will return to the Landlord.


Where the Landlord is unsatisfied with any service provided by the Agent he should contact the Agent in the first instance to try to resolve matters.  The Agent has an in-house complaints policy which must be followed, a copy of which has been provided with or prior to entering into this Agreement.  The Agent is a member of The Property Redress Scheme / The Property Ombudsman / Ombudsman Services Property (delete as applicable) and where the Landlord is unsatisfied with the way the complaint has been handled he may refer the matter to the scheme for a further decision, details of which are available upon request from the Agent.


The Agent agrees to keep copies of all forms, agreements and other correspondence in relation to the tenancy for the period of the tenancy and for a year from the date of expiry of the tenancy.  The Agent will keep copies of all financial information for seven years.


The terms and conditions of this Agreement may be varied by either party, but only with two months’ prior written notice.

Estate Agents Contract




(the ‘Agents’) and

__________________________________________ (the ‘Seller’)

The Property will be marketed at an initial asking price of


(The asking price is not a valuation but a figure for marketing purposes)

______% commission will be charged by the Agents if earned under the terms of this contract, which is calculated as

£________________________+VAT. Or

A fixed fee of £__________________ will be charged by the Agents if earned under the terms of this contract.

Total amount due to Agents for a successful sale under this agreement



This is a legal document. Please take time to read it carefully and ask any questions relating to the terms and conditions below before signing.


Sole Agency

Where the Agents act on the Seller’s behalf as sole agents, the Seller will be liable to pay remuneration to the Agents, in addition to any other costs or charges agreed, if at any time unconditional contracts for sale of the property are exchanged with a Buyer introduced by the Agents during the period of their sole agency or with whom the Agents had negotiations about the property during that period, or, with a Buyer introduced by another agent during that period.

The Agents will be able to claim the agreed commission for a period of 6 months after expiry of the sole agency agreement, if a Buyer, introduced during the sole agency period goes on to purchase the property within 6 months of expiry of the agreement.

Termination of sole agency

Either party can terminate a sole agency at any time by giving 28 days’ notice, which should be confirmed in writing.


If any other agent introduces a Buyer to the Seller during the period of the sole agency agreement, this will be regarded as an introduction by the Agent and the Seller will have to pay the Agent’s agreed fee, as well as the other agent.

Multiple Agency

For the purposes of this contract, multiple agency means that the Seller can instruct several estate agents to act on a multiple agency basis. Only the successful agent who introduces the Buyer or has negotiations with the Buyer will be entitled to commission fees.

Termination of multiple agency

Either party can terminate a multiple agency at any time by either party by giving 28 days’ notice in writing.

Sub Agency Agreements

In circumstances where the Agents wish to enter into sub-agency agreements, the Seller must be notified in writing.


The Agents ask permission to erect display boards at the property to assist in the marketing of the property. Any such boards will comply with the Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisements) Regulations 1987, as amended.

The Seller consents that the Agents may erect a For Sale board at the property

The Agent accepts liability for any claim arising under these Regulations in connection with the board, unless the action arises as a result of a further board being put up by another agent.


Fees Payable for sole/multiple Agency

Commission fees are payable as a result of the circumstances outlined in general condition 2 above. Fees are due at completion of the sale.

Responsibility of Fees

The responsibility for the payment of these fees remains with the Sellers named above.

Under the terms and conditions of this agreement, the Sellers are obliged to meet the payment schedule.


No additional expenses will be charged by the Agents unless agreed with the Seller, in writing. Any agreement will include an itemised breakdown of costs.


The Agent will, promptly and accurately, forward all offers received from potential Buyers at any time up until contracts have been exchanged, unless the offer is of an amount or type which the Seller has specifically instructed the Agents, in writing, not to pass on. A written or computerised record of all offers received will be kept (including the date and time such offers were received and the client’s response). This record will be available to the Seller on request.


The Agent will, promptly and accurately, forward all offers received from potential Buyers at any time up until contracts have been exchanged, unless the offer is of an amount or type which the Seller has specifically instructed the Agents, in writing, not to pass on. A written or computerised record of all offers received will be kept (including the date and time such offers were received and the client’s response). This record will be available to the Seller on request.


The Estate Agents Act 1979

Under the Act, the Agent must disclose whether they have a personal interest in the property.


The Agent will take all reasonable steps to make sure that all statements, whether written or oral, about the property, are accurate and not misleading. The written details (Sales Particulars) must be sent to the Seller for them to confirm that the details are accurate.


The Agent will not discriminate against any person under the definitions of the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 or the Race Relation Act 1976.

The Agent will not discriminate, or threaten to discriminate against any prospective Buyer of the Seller’s property because that person refuses to agree that the Agent will (directly or indirectly) provide services to them.

Discrimination includes:
● Failing to tell the client of an offer to buy the

● Telling the client of an offer less quickly than other

offers that have been received.
● Misrepresenting the nature of the offer or that of

rival offers.
● Giving details of properties for sale first to those

who have indicated they are prepared to let the

Agent provide services to them.
● Making it a condition that the person wanting to

buy the property must use any other service provided by the Agent or anyone else.